The relationship between the menstrual cycle, oral contraceptives, and executive function – inhibition, updating, and shifting

StatusPost-Print
Alternative title
Authors
Kowalczyk, Melanie
Kornacka, Monika
Wisiecka, Katarzyna
Młyniec, Agnieszka
Redeł, Anna
Szwykowska-Ziemniak, Maria
Krejtz, Izabela
Monograph
Monograph (alternative title)
Date
2023-12-22
Publisher
Journal title
European Psychologist
Issue
4
Volume
28
Pages
Pages
288-304
ISSN
1016-9040
ISSN of series
Access date
2024-04-16
Abstract PL
Abstract EN
Previous research suggests a link between oral contraceptives and cognitive functioning in women, yet the results are contradictory and limited by methodological inconsistencies. This is the first meta-analysis of studies comparing naturally cycling women with women taking oral contraceptives on measures testing three executive functions: inhibition, updating, and shifting. We conducted a systematic literature search. Sixteen articles were included which were either cross-sectional or experimental and compared executive functions between women taking oral contraceptives (n = 588) or cycling naturally (n = 594). The average sample size was n = 32.33 for oral contraceptives users and n = 31.34 for naturally cycling women with ranges going from 8 to 144 participants per study. The age range of participants in all the studies taken together was between 18 for the youngest participant and 50 years old for the oldest participant with a mean age of M = 21.97, SD = 2.28. The studies presented a mixture of androgenic and anti-androgenic oral contraceptives which were rarely analyzed as separate groups. We ran a multivariate meta-analysis model to estimate the effect size of 66 comparisons in executive functioning between the groups taking oral contraceptives and the groups of naturally cycling women. Overall, the effect size of differences in executive functioning between groups was not significant: d = 0.044, SE = 0.0713, 95% CI [−0.0959, 0.1839], z = 0.62; p = 0.54. The analysis of the cycle phases and types of executive functions as moderators was not significant, however, the studies assessed as having a lower quality increased the overall effect. Our analysis indicates no difference between oral contraceptive users and naturally cycling women on core executive functions but the high amount of heterogeneity might reflect a high level of methodological diversity. Implications for research design and methodology are discussed.
Abstract other
Keywords PL
Keywords EN
executive functions
inhibition
updating
shifting
oral contraceptives
Keywords other
Exhibition title
Place of exhibition (institution)
Exhibition curator
Type
License type
cc-by
Except as otherwise noted, this item is licensed under the Attribution licence | Permitted use of copyrighted works
Funder
Time range from
Time range to
Contact person name
Related publication
Related publication
Grant/project name
Związek pomiędzy cyklem menstruacyjnym a lękiem i funkcjonowaniem poznawczym – moderacyjna rola stosowania doustnej antykoncepcji hormonalnej
Views
Views16
Acquisition Date18.05.2024
Downloads
Downloads2
Acquisition Date18.05.2024
Altmetrics©
Dimensions
Google Scholar
Google Scholar