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Why a Euromaidan movement party never emerged: a field theory approach

Revtiuk, Yevhen
Whether or not a social movement will produce a movement party depends on the positions of other actors within a broader political field. This context dependency led to the prevalence of case studies in the movement party literature and a focus on positive cases of such parties actually emerging. We applied the conceptual framework of fields to the study of the 2013-14 Ukrainian Euromaidan social movement, which did not produce a movement party. Using a variety of data, we showed that the rules of the field favored well-financed political projects able to pay the high costs of entering a political competition. Following the reversal of the EU integration policy, the interests of broad social groups were neglected by the incumbents, while challengers mobilized into a nationwide social movement. Leaderless and decentralized, based on grassroots and crowd-funding, Euromaidan pursued a strategy of developing a horizontal structure. However, the organization-building ambitions of the challengers were put on hold in 2014. Following the Russian aggression, the activists’ efforts had to be reoriented toward protecting territorial integrity and remedying multiple policy failures of the Ukrainian state, which was unprepared for such a scenario.
Otwarty dostępArtykułyJournal article

Burakumin in class context of Japan

Korzeniowska, Ewa
Korpysa, Jarosław
Niedźwiedzka-Rystwej, Paulina
The aim of this paper is to analyze how the Burakumin minority has been represented in Japanese and Western intellectual traditions, and scholarly literature. It argues that modern Burakumin are an example of an invented tradition (as described by Eric Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger), resulting in creating a long lasting image of this group and influencing how they are perceived by modern Japanese society. Burakumin is a minority group in Japan that is still a subject of discrimination. Being a part of the Japanese society, they still are victims of prejudice and stereotypes coming from the pre-modern reference to jobs regarded as "unclean" or "contaminated". Burakumin (Japanese 部落 民, literally: people from the settlement) minority group, who are ethnically, culturally and linguistically indistinguishable from other inhabitants of Japan (hence they are called "the invisible minority"), are still victims of prejudices and stereotypes that go back into the past. Discriminatory practices are based on the conviction that ancestors of modern Burakumin were performing professions considered in pre-modern Japan as "unclean" or "contaminated". In modernity Burakumin discrimination was being described using various theoretical approaches. Available sources viewed Burakumin as being caste-like [June A. Gordon, 2017; De Vos, Wagatsuma, 1964, Donoghue 1966]. Burakumin were also called a minority group, a social minority [Weiner, 2002], a race in a non-racial society [Debito Arudou, 2015, Siddle 2011], however, those issues have not been resolved unequivocally by researchers. Burakumin, according to various estimates, account for 2 to 3 million people [Sugimoto 2014], and represent approximately 2-2.5% of Japanese society. Until today, discrimination against Burakumin has been regarded as taboo in Japan [Weiner 1997]. The largest Buraku (the settlements, districts and villages inhabited by Burakumin) were located in the prefectures: Osaka, Kyoto, Hyogo, Fukuoka, Hiroshima and Tokyo, which are areas considered both in the past and today as the cultural centers of Japan. However, there are no Buraku on Okinawa and Hokkaido, which were incorporated into Japan in the 19th century. There are contradictory statements whether there is any continuity between Burakumin and people from Eta/Hinin groups that were the object of discrimination in premodern Japan, mailny Edo Period (1601-1868). Based on the collected materials [Weiner, 2002, Amos 2011, Kobayakawa 2020], it is difficult to conclude that there was one model of the formation of Buraku, common to all Japanese regions. What is established in research is that they have been discriminated against, separated from the majority of society and have suffered most from poverty [Amos 2011, De Vos 1964, Upham 1988]. However, according to Akira Kobayakawa [Kobayakawa 2020], Burakumin were the product of early Japanese capitalism treated by Japanese government as a form of low paid workforce. This paper will undertake a study of class issues related to the situation of the Burakumin minority in Japan. Is the present position of this group in Japanese society influenced by issues related to the type of social hierarchy that existed in the past and functions today? The main research question is: is Burakumin a class, caste, stratum, group, state, or some other type of collective entity? Do Burakumin identify with the so-called popular class in Japan? Does research make such a distinction? The most important thing will be to reconstruct and present to the Polish reader a contemporary discourse on social classes in international literature, with particular emphasis on works on Japan [Sugimoto 2014, Hashimoto and Miyasaka 2000]. The understanding of class issues depends on how concepts derived from Western social sciences in Japan are understood and implemented in the Japanese discourse of humanities and social sciences. Based on the theories of Anderson [Anderson, 1983] and Hobsbawm [Hobsbawm, Ranger, 1983], the work argues that the social phenomenon called Burakumin is a product of Japanese early capitalism and that there is not enough evidence to identify modern Burakumin with historical group Eta / Hinin. It will further explore from the class perspective, based on the theory of Ralf Daherendorf, how Burakumin maintain their own differences and how they position themselves compared to other classes in Japanese society.
Otwarty dostępMonografieMonograph Chapter (Conference proceedings)

Exploring Attitudes Toward “Sugar Relationships” Across 87 Countries: A Global Perspective on Exchanges of Resources for Sex and Companionship

Meskó, Norbert
Kowal, Marta
Láng, András
Kocsor, Ferenc
Bandi, Szabolcs A.
Putz, Adam
Sorokowski, Piotr
Frederick, David A.
García, Felipe E.
Aguilar, Leonardo A.
Studzinska, Anna
Tan, Chee-Seng
Gjoneska, Biljana
Milfont, Taciano L.
Bulut, Merve Topcu
Grigoryev, Dmitry
Aavik, Toivo
Boussena, Mahmoud
Mattiassi, Alan D. A.
Afhami, Reza
Amin, Rizwana
Baiocco, Roberto
Brahim, Hamdaoui
Can, Ali R.
Carneiro, Joao
Çetinkaya, Hakan
Chubinidze, Dimitri
Deschrijver, Eliane
Don, Yahya
Dubrov, Dmitrii
Duyar, Izzet
Jovic, Marija
Kamburidis, Julia A.
Khan, Farah
Khun-Inkeeree, Hareesol
Koso-Drljevic, Maida
Lacko, David
Massar, Karlijn
Morelli, Mara
Natividade, Jean C.
Nyhus, Ellen K.
Park, Ju Hee
Pazhoohi, Farid
Pirtskhalava, Ekaterine
Ponnet, Koen
Prokop, Pavol
Šakan, Dušana
Tulyakul, Singha
Wang, Austin H.
Aquino, Sibele
Atamtürk, Derya D.
Burduli, Nana
Chirumbolo, Antonio
Dural, Seda
Etchezahar, Edgardo
Moharrampour, Nasim Ghahraman
Aczel, Balazs
Kozma, Luca
Lins, Samuel
Manunta, Efisio
Marot, Tiago
Mebarak, Moises
Miroshnik, Kirill G.
Misetic, Katarina
Papadatou-Pastou, Marietta
Bakos, Bence
Sahli, Fatima Zahra
Singh, Sangeeta
Solak, Çağlar
Volkodav, Tatiana
Wlodarczyk, Anna
Akello, Grace
Argyrides, Marios
Çoker, Ogeday
Gałasińska-Grygorczuk, Katarzyna
Gómez Yepes, Talía
Kobylarek, Aleksander
Landa-Blanco, Miguel
Mayorga, Marlon
Özener, Barış
Pacquing, Ma. Criselda T.
Reyes, Marc Eric S.
Şahin, Ayşegül
Tamayo-Agudelo, William
Topanova, Gulmira
Toplu-Demirtaş, Ezgi
Türkan, Belgüzar N.
Zumárraga-Espinosa, Marcos
Grassini, Simone
Antfolk, Jan
Cornec, Clément
Pisanski, Katarzyna
Stöckli, Sabrina
Eder, Stephanie Josephine
Han, Hyemin
The current study investigates attitudes toward one form of sex for resources: the so-called sugar relationships, which often involve exchanges of resources for sex and/or companionship. The present study examined associations among attitudes toward sugar relationships and relevant variables (e.g., sex, sociosexuality, gender inequality, parasitic exposure) in 69,924 participants across 87 countries. Two self-report measures of Acceptance of Sugar Relationships (ASR) developed for younger companion providers (ASR-YWMS) and older resource providers (ASR-OMWS) were translated into 37 languages. We tested cross-sex and cross-linguistic construct equivalence, cross-cultural invariance in sex differences, and the importance of the hypothetical predictors of ASR. Both measures showed adequate psychometric properties in all languages (except the Persian version of ASR-YWMS). Results partially supported our hypotheses and were consistent with previous theoreti- cal considerations and empirical evidence on human mating. For example, at the individual level, sociosexual orientation, traditional gender roles, and pathogen prevalence were significant predictors of both ASR-YWMS and ASR-OMWS. At the country level, gender inequality and parasite stress positively predicted the ASR-YWMS. However, being a woman negatively predicted the ASR-OMWS, but positively predicted the ASR-YWMS. At country-level, ingroup favoritism and parasite stress positively predicted the ASR-OMWS. Furthermore, significant cross-subregional differences were found in the openness to sugar relationships (both ASR-YWMS and ASR-OMWS scores) across subregions. Finally, significant differences were found between ASR-YWMS and ASR-OMWS when compared in each subregion. The ASR-YWMS was significantly higher than the ASR-OMWS in all subregions, except for Northern Africa and Western Asia.
Otwarty dostępArtykułyJournal article