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Vaccine Skeptics and Vaccine Enthusiasts: What Is the Intergroup Wall Made Of?

Dehumanization in various forms often accompanies intergroup relations. While it is not clear whether it is a signifier of hostility or rather a source of it, there is a clear link - when dehumanization occurs between groups, we can expect effects ranging from a lack of mutual pro-sociality to an endorsement of violence against an out-group. Our study tested whether mutual dehumanization and meta-dehumanization (the belief that we are being dehumanized by an out-group) occur between supporters and opponents of a COVID-19 vaccine. Using a diverse sample (n = 1262) of residents of Poland, the USA and RPA, we investigated whether attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccines can form the basis of an in-group preference and to what extent such groups would dehumanize their opponents. We found evidence for strong in-group preferences among both vaccine enthusiasts and vaccine skeptics. We also found evidence of mutual dehumanization and meta-dehumanization. This dehumanization was particularly pronounced in the case of more extreme forms (as assessed by direct dehumanization and blatant dehumanization measures) and marginally present in the case of subtle dehumanization (as assessed by dual model dehumanization). Vaccine enthusiasts dehumanized vaccine skeptics in all aspects measured, vaccine skeptics dehumanized vaccine enthusiasts in all aspects except one - they did not dehumanize them mechanistically. Overall, the dehumanization found was strong, universal across the countries studied, and largely unspecific. Contrary to our predictions, we did not find many distinctive forms of dehumanization specific to a particular target group - the dehumanization observed was largely symmetrical.
Otwarty dostępArtykułyJournal article

Constitutional background and the practice of impeachment in the United States

Urbańczyk, Michał
Gaweł, Kamil
Mejri, Fatma
The subject of the author’s reflection is the institution of impeachment provided for in the US Constitution. The subject of analysis is its genesis in the American system, its subject and object scope, as well as the procedural aspects related to its application. The author also presents reflections on the sanctions that are applied under impeachment. The study is completed with analyses of the practical aspects of the use of this institution in the United States, especially in recent years.
Otwarty dostępMonografieMonograph Chapter

Recurring Suboptimal Choices Result in Superior Decision Making

A vast body of research has indicated that intensified deliberation on choice problems oftenimproves decision accuracy, as evidenced by choices that maximize expected value (EV).However, such extensive deliberation is not always feasible due to cognitive andenvironmental constraints. In one simulation study and three well-poweredfully-incentivized empirical studies, using the decision-from-experience task, we found thatindividuals who maximized EV without time constraints accumulated higher total gain.The trend reversed in the following two studies. Under time constraints, participants whomade more suboptimal (or random in terms of EV maximization) decisions earned moremoney than those who spent more time maximizing EV. By comparing sampling anddecision strategies among people with higher and lower statistical numeracy, we found thatmore numerate individuals made quicker suboptimal choices, resulting in better overallearnings than less numerate individuals. Detailed analysis indicated that skilled decisionmakers sampled information more rapidly and dynamically. They adaptively relied onvarying search strategies, initially focusing on reducing uncertainty and later discoveringunobserved outcomes. Finally, adaptive exploration was accompanied by the developmentof a metacognitive understanding of the task structure and choice environment.Participants who recognized the effectiveness of the random selection strategy earned morerewards. Taken together, these findings suggest that people (especially those with highernumeracy) in time-constrained environment adaptively changed their decision-makingstrategies and developed a metacognitive understanding of the task structure and decisionenvironment. This resulted in making recurring suboptimal choices that led to superiorlong-term performance in the decision task.
Otwarty dostępArtykułyJournal article

Gender biases in legal decision-making: an exploration of judicial and public perceptions across multiple offences

Purpose The purpose of the paper is to investigate how judges and the general population formulate judgments on legal cases, considering both legal and extralegal factors, with a focus on the significance of the defendant’s sex. Design/methodology/approach The first experiment aimed to determine if non-lawyers’ judgments are affected by the defendant’s sex, using brief excerpts from indictments with the defendant’s sex interchanged. Study 2 aimed to verify if this effect applies to future lawyers, suggesting a peculiar approval granted by men to women displaying illegal sexual behaviour towards young men. Findings The findings showed that the sex of the offender only influenced judgments in sexual offences, with male participants being more lenient towards female offenders. Originality/value The originality/value of the paper lies in its examination of the influence of the defendant’s sex on judgments made by both judges and the general population, specifically focussing on non-lawyers’ judgments. While previous studies have shown that judges tend to be more lenient towards women in certain cases, this paper adds novelty by investigating whether a similar effect is observed among non-lawyers. Moreover, the research sheds light on the relevance of the defendant's sex in cases of sexual offences and identifies a gender-specific leniency towards female offenders, particularly among male participants. The study also explores how this effect might extend to future lawyers, providing insights into societal attitudes regarding illegal sexual behaviour involving women and young men. Overall, the paper contributes valuable information to the understanding of how sex-based biases can influence legal judgments and decision-making processes.
Otwarty dostępArtykułyJournal article